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John T. Cullen's revolutionary new theory of cosmology

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03. STRATEGY 2020

In my first (2008) edition, I felt compelled to lay out my theory as the necessary result of thousands of years of evolution in the sphere of scientific thinking. I'll explain in a moment.

As a result, in order to read my theory, you had to begin with the ancient Hellenes (Greeks) and work your way forward through the centuries. In a cumbersome way, this was a valid approach. Interestingly, heliocentric theory already existed in ancient times, but was frowned upon as 'impious' so that geocentric thinking prevailed.

More importantly to how I laid out my presentation, I wanted to show how scientific world views in the larger framework develop. My prime model was the 2d Century CE model of Claudius Ptolemy, who in his Almagest proposed a cosmological geocentric model consisting of nested spheres, among which the planetae ('wanderers') and other heavenly bodies moved as if on tracks. As I was developing my background ideas to explain why we should be in yet another cosmological revolution today, I was unaware of the work of Thomas S. Kuhn (1922-1996) who, in his 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions laid out a schema roughly similar to mine. In my view, typically the authorities (scientific, theological, philosophical, whatever) come to a consensus of some type. Gradually, aberrant and contradictory observed data begin creeping in. As a result, the authority figures will modify the existing model to accommodate new observed facts. For example, the cycles of Ptolemy (who elaborated on the work of earlier figures like Aristotle) became a more complex theory of cycles adn epicycles *because* it was observed that some of the planetary motions appear to be retrograde (slowing down or even going backwards). Even in ancient times, scientific observers (among other tasks, doing horoscopes) compensated for the aberrations by complicating their model to include epicycles. Literally, this would be a 'circle upon a circle' so that, allegedly, for some reason, Mars may be moving in tandem with Jupiter across the heavens, and then Mars will seem to take a side-track, go in a circle that takes it backwards, until it pops back onto its major track around the earth (not the sun, since most of this was geocentric ideation).

My purpose in expounding on all this old history up was to show how, in the 1920s, the work of Hubble, Einstein, Le Maitre, and other scientific thinkers revolutionized cosmology in ways that had been long brewing and overdue. It took until then for bona fide scientists to abandon the last vestiges of heliocentric or Copernican theory. Among the major byproducts of the 1920s revolution was tangible proof that the sun is not the center of the universe, nor is it anywhere near. In fact, in the larger framework, it surprised many scientists to find that our galaxy ('milky road') is not the entire universe. So the solar system in which we live is not the center of the universe, nor even of this galaxy, but is located in a remote and obscure trailer park on the outer limits of our galaxy. On top of that, we then knew that there are more galaxies in the cosmos than grains of sand on all the beaches of Earth (or more).

A large part of my strategy in 2008 and again in 2015 involved my own learning experience, which I tediously (I admit) recorded, in addition to other fascinating material. In fact, the Renaissance itself is yet another of those Ptolemaic and epi-Ptolemaic experiences. That is why I devoted an entire chapter (now moved to this website) to the nature and purpose of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican, as a late 1400s 'theological attack submarine' that is again one of those efforts to preserve existing models while avoiding the need to move on. I take no partisan or sectarian sides; I do point out that, concurrently, with all of the flaws on both sides of the debate, the Enlightenment and Humanism (and other factors; urbanizationk, discovery, industrialization, and much more) brought about the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation.

After the new contact of relatively barbaric Western Christian feudal societies with Western Asia (the Crusader Kingdoms, the Holy Land, etc) in the wake of the collapsing Arab/Muslim golden age (in large part under attack from the enormous Mongol empire, e.g. the sack of Baghdad in 1248) by 1300 there was enough new learning flooding into the European Medieval sphere to cause a crisis in theology. I designated the construction of the Sistine Chapel in the late 1400s, named after Pope Sixtus IV, as a kind of 'theological attack submarine' constructed along historiographical plans…fascinating, tedious, overwhelming, and not to the point (which is: Exogravitation!).

SUMMING UP. The 2020 (Vision Year) edition takes the opposite approach. I lead (in the book) with my theory, starting with my initial insight that the accelerating expansion of our cosmos is not due to some unknown force ('dark energy') but to a manifestation of ordinary gravitational attraction I call exogravitation. In this theory, our universe is not being pushed apart by an unknown force. Rather, it is being pulled apart in all directions; it is falling in all directions; under the vast gravitational attraction of a larger structure: the motherverse, for lack of a better term. In that motherverse, infinitely many universes undergo a standard cycle that includes the Big Bang of the Standard Model. As with the Hubble moment in the 1920s, we are once again facing larger structures, although I can only posit one (the infinite and eternal concept of a Motherverse). I have heard many astronomers, cosmologists, and other experts state (wistfully, sort of under their breath) that they suspect there are many universes (larger structures, again), or even infinitely many universes like our own. Their moment is now at hand with my theory of exogravitation.

MOVING FORWARD… I have left the end point (the target part about Exogravitation) in my 2020 edition, while removing the multi-millennial discussion of how scientific ideas and revolutions occur. You can now turn to my book (digital or print editions). At the same time, for what it's worth, I will endeavor to reproduce my history lead-up on this website. It is worth consideration as being interesting in its own regard maybe for a rainy day. With that, dear reader, I now move on with the history stuff and you can come along if you're interested. Or leave here and start reading my Exogravitation theory. Thank you, and best wishes. JTC June 2020 San Diego, California.

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New Theory of Cosmology: Exogravitation

Obsolete: Engineering Black Box Term Dark Energy

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